Friday, May 23, 2008

Computer Viruii

Computer Viruii
Viruses


Q: Why should I learn about viruses??
When people talk about virii (a subject dear to my heart) it is common
for people to treat the virus, the trojan horse, the logic bomb, etc.
as if they were one and the same. Now, personally, I find the idea
insulting and I am sure that many virus writers would feel the same
way. Time and time again, I have seen the worthy name of VIRUS heaped
upon the ranks of such undeserving pranks as the common TROJAN horse.
To think that the two are one and the same is fine, if you are the
common lamer that so often finds himself behind the computer screen.
To be unable to differenciate between a virus and a trojan is
perfectly acceptable for many. If you are entirely satisified with
knowing just enough to be able to start your computer and run your
application, then for heaven's sake don't read this article. In fact,
why don't you go buy a MacIntosh?
As for the rest of us, we realize that there IS a difference. And in
order to prevent ourselves from looking like clueless idiots, we
strive to learn the differences between the virus and the trojan horse
and what each one is and is not capable of.
What advantage is gained by learning of such things as a computer
virus? The person who is well-informed in such matters gains many
advantages over one who is not.
For one, he will quickly notice when his system shows signs of virus
activity and he will catch it before it has had time to do significant
damage to his system. Since he will have taken the proper precautions
in advance he will be able to quickly restore his system system while
suffering minimal loss.
Since he knows what a virus can and can't do, he won't believe every
quirk in his hardware or software is actually the result of some
devious virus. He will not be lulled into the false sense of security
provided by such worthless products as CPAV or NAV. He will have the
wisdom to look a trojan horse 'in the mouth'.
When it comes to virii, people are inclined to believe alot of stupid
shit. Let's face it, people are inclined to believe alot of stupid
shit period, but when it comes to virii, they tend to get even stupiderþ

Types of Viruses

Q: What is a virus?

a VIRUS is a small, executable program with the ability to replicate
itself by adding its code to that of a host program and/or the system
area of a hard or floppy disk. The user is generally unaware of the
actions of a virus as it replicates and usually only becomes aware of
its presence when the virus 'activates', which it does according to a
given set of conditions and at which time it is often too late.
However, once the user knows what signs to look for, it can be very
obvious when viral activity occurs. More on the signs in a little bit.
Let's discuss the difference between viruses.
Every virus has its own personality. Viruses differ in many ways, each
having its own unique properties that make it different. Here are some
ways that viruses differ from each other:
þ SIZE - A virus can be as small as 66 bytes or less, or as large
as 4096 bytes or more. Compared to most computer programs a virus
must be very small.
þ METHOD OF INFECTION - A virus can infect the host program in
different ways. Below are three methods commonly used. They are
by no means the only ways, but they are the most common. It is
possible for a virus to use one or more of these methods.
þ OVERWRITING - When a virus infects using this method, it will
simply write a copy of itself over the begining of the host
program. This is a very simple method and is used by more
primitive viruses. An infected file has been destroyed and
must be restored from a backup disk. Overwriting tends to make
the user suspicious becuase the host program no longer
functions. This method of infection causes no change in the
size of an infected program.
þ APPENDING - This method is a bit more complex. The virus
appends itself onto the end of the host program and also edits
the begining of the program. When the user runs the infected
program it will jump to the end of the program where the virus
is located, perform the functions of the virus, then return
and continue to run the host program. To the user, the program
is functioning normally. This method of infection causes
infected programs to increase in size.
Some appending viruses are unable to tell whether or not
they have already infected a program and will continue to
infect the program hundreds of times, causing it to grow
considerably in size.
þ DISK INFECTORS - Other viruses will infect the boot record or
partition table. This is an executable area of the disk that
is automatically run every time you boot up from the disk.
This means that as soon as the computer boots up, the virus is
in memory.
þ TSR - A virus may or may not become resident in memory. If it
does go TSR, then its chances of infecting files are greatly
increased. Otherwise it can only do its stuff when an infected
program is run. If the virus is in memory it can infect files any
time it chooses. Partition table and boot sector infecting viruses
are always TSRs.
þ STEALTH - Some TSR viruses use a sophisticated technique called
Stealth cloaking. What this means is the virus will fool the
system so that everything appears to be normal. When a user does
a directory listing the virus will intercept the disk read, and
alter the data so that the file sizes appear to be unchanged,
when in actuality they have increased in size.
Boot sector infectors may use stealth so that when the user
attempts to view the boot record, instead of showing the actual
boot record, a copy of the old boot record is returned instead.
Because of stealth techniques it may be impossible to detect a
virus once it has become resident in memory. The only sure way to
check for a stealth virus is to boot from a clean, write-
protected floppy, then scan the hard drive. It is a good idea to
prepare such a floppy disk ahead of time, and adding anti-virus
software such as Scan and F-Prot.
þ ACTIVATION CRITERIA AND EFFECT- The other area that gives a virus
its personality is the activation criteria, or what makes it go
off. Some activate by the date, others activate when a certain
program is run, and other will activate when they can't find any
more files that haven't been infected yet.
When a virus activates it will take a certain action. I will
refer to this as the activation effect. The efffect may be as
simple and harmless as displaying a message or as malicious as
trashing the victim's hard drive. Obviously, you want to find the
virus BEFORE it activatesþ

Q: What are the ways that I can catch a virus?

Just as with the AIDS virus, there is alot of bullshit concerning the
conditions under which a virus may infect your system. A virus can
only be caught by executing a program that has been infected with a
virus or by ATTEMPTING to boot up from an infected disk. You cannot
get a virus by merely LOOKING at an infected program or disk. A virus
can infect just about any executable file EXE COM OVL SYS DRV BIN and
the partition table and master boot record of floppies and hard disks.
Notice that above I said "attempting" to boot up from an infected
disk. Even if you attempt to boot up from A: and it tells you,
"Non-System disk" and then you boot from C: instead, the virus can
still be active if A: was infected. This is very important. It doesn't
have to be a succesful boot for the virus to get into memory. The
first thing it will probably do is infect C: drive. Then if you put a
new disk in A:, that will in turn be infected. That is why it is
important to keep a clean, write-protected floppy. So, to sum it up:
þ You can catch a virus by executing an infected program, wether you
realize the program was run or not. This includes overlay files,
system drivers, EXE and COM files, etc.
þ You can catch a virus by ATTEMPTING to boot from an infected
floppy disk or hard disk, without regard as to whether that
attempt was succesful.
þ A cold boot will remove a virus from memory, a warm boot won't
necessarily do it. So press the button on your computer instead of
using CTRL-ALT-DEL.
þ You CAN'T get a virus just from looking at an infected disk or file.
þ You CAN'T get a virus from a data file, unless it is actually an
executable and some other program renames it.
So in order to keep yourself in the clear, always check any new
program for viruses before running it, and never leave a disk in the
floppy drive when you boot upþ

Q: What are the signs that a virus is present?

There are several things that may indicate the presence of a virus on
your system. 1. Unexplained file growth in EXE and COM files may indicate an
appending virus.
2. Programs that used to work now return with some type of error
message and fail to work at all. This may indicate an overwriting
virus. Some common messages are "Program to big to fit in memory"
or "Unknown Command" and other similar messages. Thes should make
you suspicious.
3. Unexplained directory changes. If you execute a program and then
find that you are suddenly in a different directory, this may
indicate that a virus has been hunting for files to infect.
4. A decrease in available system memory. You should know how much
memory is usually free on your computer. If this number drops, it
may indicate a TSR virus. This does not always work since some
viruses do not protect the memory they use.
5. Unexplained ChkDsk errors. Stealth viruses will cause you to get a
CHKDSK error because they are altering the info before it gets to
CHKDSK. If you do a CHKDSK /F under this condition, it could CAUSE
considerable damage to the directory structure when in actuality
nothing was wrong in the first place.
6. Unexplained disk access. If the floppy or hard drive begin to light
up all of a sudden for no reason, it could mean viral activity. It
could also mean that you are running a disk cache with staged
writes enabled.
7. An overall slowdown in system activity. Programs may take longer to
execute than normal.

Q: How can I protect myself against viruses?

There is one fool-proof positive method. Never run any program that
isn't already on your computer and never use anybody else's disks.
Unfortunately, that is practical. So what is the next best thing?
þ Backups - Make frequent backups of the files on your hard disk.
Remember that at any given moment you may lose your entire hard
drive and its contents. Do you have backups of all your important
files? Things like Phone directories and passwords are especially
hard to get back. So be prepared for the worst.
þ Rescue Disk - Many programs such as TBAV and Norton Utilities will
allow you to create a 'rescue disk', which is a floppy disk that
can be booted from in an emergency. On this disk will be stored a
copy of important system info that could be very hard, if not
impossible to come up with manually. This includes a copy of the
partition table, Master Boot Record (MBR), CMOS settings, and other
important system info.
Also on this disk, you should store utilities that can be used to
detect, clean, and remove viruses from your hard disk. This disk
should be write-protected, and should be updated any time you
make changes to your system.
þ Knowledge - Keeping yourself well-informed about how viruses work,
any new viruses, and that kind of info is very important. Most of
the computer using public is entirely ignorant when it comes to
viruses. By readin this article, you have already made a big step
at reducing your odds of being hit by a virus.
þ AV Software - There are plenty of good Anti-Virus programs
available on the market. Most of the good ones are usually
shareware or freeware. Some are commercial. Many of the commercial
ones are lousy, too. Using some of the less effective virus
software can provide a false sense of security.



Anti-Virus Software What NOT to use:

The following are products that I feel are not up to par as far as
AV software goes. I would avoid using them if possible, opting for
some of the products in the following list. However, if these
programs are the only ones you can find, then they certainly are
better than nothing at all. þ Norton Anti-Virus (NAV)
þ Central Point Anti-Virus (CPAV) þ Dos v6.0 Anti-Virus
What TO use: ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
These are some of the AV products that I DO recommend for you to
use. The more Anti-Virus software, the better protected you are.
Allow me to quickly explain what a Heuristic Scan is.
Normally, a virus scanner will look for a 'signature', a series of
bytes that occur inside the virus that can be used to identify a
specific virus. A huruistic scan takes a different approach. It
evaluates the code and looks for virus-like programming techniques.
This technique enables the scanner to find new or unknown viruses
and variations but also tends to cause more false positives and
takes longer. It is a very useful feature.
þ VirusScan - by MacAfee, Also known as SCAN. This is the
standard, and recognizes more than 1300 virus strains. This
program is readily available and offers frequent updates.
{Shareware}
þ F-Prot Anti Virus- by Frisk Software, I highly recommend this
program. It recognizes nearly as many viruses as SCAN and
recognizes trojan horse programs, as well. It has both a menu
driven and command line interface, huriustic scan, virus
database, and detailed descriptions. {Free for personal use}
þ Thunder Byte Anti Virus- This is a good package that does alot
of interesting things. It will create a rescue disk, is highly
configurable, does CRC test for changed files, and has an
adjustable heruistic scan. It will also allow you to replace
the bootstrap loader on your hard drive with a new one that
will perform an automatic CRC check upon bootup. This will
allow you to be instantly informed of any boot sector viruses.
{ShareWare}
þ Doctor Solomon's Anti Virus ToolKit - Although more expensive
than the others, this program has some interesting utilities.
It has "anti-stealth" technology, and an authorization TSR, and
a Certify TSR, which only allows you to run programs that have been
checked and had their CRC logged in. {Commercial}

Disclaimer:-
i am not liable for any criminal or bad thing which you have done using this message and document. i am giving here for the educational purpose and care should be taken from your side before using this document and please get a written permission from the person before hacking or doing some thing in the network or system.This document is intended for judicial or educational purposes. I have collected these documents and messages from the internet for educational purpose only. always use these documents for doing good only. I don't want to promote computer crime and I'm not responible of your actions in any way. If you want to hack a computer, do the decent thing and ask for permission first. please read and use this for useful purpose only to protect the systems and information from the bad people. always seek permission from the system owner or who ever responcible for the system by written and then go ahead. Give a full report with honestly to the person or company about your experiments and findings from the system. Always Do Good Think Good and Belive Good.

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